To make a model searchable, you’ll need to add it into the search index. All pages, images and documents are indexed for you, so you can start searching them right away.
If you have created some extra fields in a subclass of Page or Image, you may want to add these new fields to the search index too so that a user’s search query will match on their content. See Indexing extra fields for info on how to do this.
If you have a custom model that you would like to make searchable, see Indexing custom models.
Updating the index¶
If the search index is kept separate from the database (when using Elasticsearch for example), you need to keep them both in sync. There are two ways to do this: using the search signal handlers, or calling the
update_index command periodically. For best speed and reliability, it’s best to use both if possible.
wagtailsearch provides some signal handlers which bind to the save/delete signals of all indexed models. This would automatically add and delete them from all backends you have registered in
WAGTAILSEARCH_BACKENDS. These signal handlers are automatically registered when the
wagtail.search app is loaded.
Wagtail also provides a command for rebuilding the index from scratch.
It is recommended to run this command once a week and at the following times:
- whenever any pages have been created through a script (after an import, for example)
- whenever any changes have been made to models or search configuration
The search may not return any results while this command is running, so avoid running it at peak times.
Indexing extra fields¶
Indexing extra fields is not supported by the database backend. If you’re using the database backend, any other fields you define via
search_fields will be ignored.
Fields must be explicitly added to the
search_fields property of your
Page-derived model, in order for you to be able to search/filter on them. This is done by overriding
search_fields to append a list of extra
FilterField objects to it.
This creates an
EventPage model with two fields:
description is indexed as a
date is indexed as a
from wagtail.search import index from django.utils import timezone class EventPage(Page): description = models.TextField() date = models.DateField() search_fields = Page.search_fields + [ # Inherit search_fields from Page index.SearchField('description'), index.FilterField('date'), ] # Get future events which contain the string "Christmas" in the title or description >>> EventPage.objects.filter(date__gt=timezone.now()).search("Christmas")
These are used for performing full-text searches on your models, usually for text fields.
- partial_match (
boolean) - Setting this to true allows results to be matched on parts of words. For example, this is set on the title field by default, so a page titled
Hello World!will be found if the user only types
Helinto the search box.
- boost (
int/float) - This allows you to set fields as being more important than others. Setting this to a high number on a field will cause pages with matches in that field to be ranked higher. By default, this is set to 2 on the Page title field and 1 on all other fields.
- es_extra (
dict) - This field is to allow the developer to set or override any setting on the field in the ElasticSearch mapping. Use this if you want to make use of any ElasticSearch features that are not yet supported in Wagtail.
These are added to the search index but are not used for full-text searches. Instead, they allow you to run filters on your search results.
Indexing callables and other attributes¶
This is not supported in the Database Backend (default)
Search/filter fields do not need to be Django model fields. They can also be any method or attribute on your model class.
One use for this is indexing the
get_*_display methods Django creates automatically for fields with choices.
from wagtail.search import index class EventPage(Page): IS_PRIVATE_CHOICES = ( (False, "Public"), (True, "Private"), ) is_private = models.BooleanField(choices=IS_PRIVATE_CHOICES) search_fields = Page.search_fields + [ # Index the human-readable string for searching. index.SearchField('get_is_private_display'), # Index the boolean value for filtering. index.FilterField('is_private'), ]
Callables also provide a way to index fields from related models. In the example from Inline Panels and Model Clusters, to index each BookPage by the titles of its related_links:
class BookPage(Page): # ... def get_related_link_titles(self): # Get list of titles and concatenate them return '\n'.join(self.related_links.all().values_list('name', flat=True)) search_fields = Page.search_fields + [ # ... index.SearchField('get_related_link_titles'), ]
Indexing custom models¶
Any Django model can be indexed and searched.
To do this, inherit from
index.Indexed and add some
search_fields to the model.
from wagtail.search import index class Book(index.Indexed, models.Model): title = models.CharField(max_length=255) genre = models.CharField(max_length=255, choices=GENRE_CHOICES) author = models.ForeignKey(Author, on_delete=models.CASCADE) published_date = models.DateTimeField() search_fields = [ index.SearchField('title', partial_match=True, boost=10), index.SearchField('get_genre_display'), index.FilterField('genre'), index.FilterField('author'), index.FilterField('published_date'), ] # As this model doesn't have a search method in its QuerySet, we have to call search directly on the backend >>> from wagtail.search.backends import get_search_backend >>> s = get_search_backend() # Run a search for a book by Roald Dahl >>> roald_dahl = Author.objects.get(name="Roald Dahl") >>> s.search("chocolate factory", Book.objects.filter(author=roald_dahl)) [<Book: Charlie and the chocolate factory>]